A STUDY ON THE TWO RESEARCH TRADITIONS IN PHYSICS OF EARLY 20TH CENTURY
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants|
|Research Institution||SEIREI CHRISTOPHER COLLEGE|
ABIKO Seiya SEIREI CHRISTOPHER COLLEGE, DEPARTMENT OF NURSING, PROFESSOR, 看護学科, 教授 (90202655)
|Project Period (FY)
1996 – 1998
Completed(Fiscal Year 1998)
|Budget Amount *help
¥1,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥400,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥400,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥700,000)
|Keywords||CHEMICO-THERMAL TRADITION / PARTICLE-SYNAMICAL TRADITION / EINSTEIN / THEORY OF RELATIVITY / BOHR / THEORY OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE / QUANTUM MECHANICS / EINSTEIN-BOHR CONTROVERSY / 単独研究 / 組織的協同研究体制 / 巨大科学 / ボ-ア / アインシュタイン-ボ-ア論争 / R.クラウジウス / エントロピー概念 / J.J.トムソン / 電子の発見 / 電磁気学の理論変化|
The following results are obtained from the present research.
1. In the European physics of early 20ィイD1thィエD1 century, we can distinguish two research traditions 'the chemico-thermal tradition' and 'the particle-dynamical tradition,' the main bodies of them being, respectively, the Helmholtzian school and the Cavendish school.
2. The starting point of 'the chemico-thermal tradition' can be regarded as the time when Clausius introduced the 'concept of entropy' in 1865. The time of the introduction of this concept is so far frequently misunderstood as 1854. The construction of the 'statistical mechanics' by Boltzmann and the introduction of the 'quantum-hypothesis' by Planck were done in this research tradition.
3. The starting point of 'the particle-dynamical tradition' can be regarded as the time when Lorentz introduced a theory later called as the 'electron theory'. This theory brought forth the theory-change of electromagnetism from macroscopic to microscopic, and the subsequent 'discoveries of the electron' by Zeemann and J.J.Thomson as well as by Lorentz himself.
4. Among the results obtained with 'the chemico-thermal tradition,' are the 'special and general theories of relativity' by Einstein, and the 'wave mechanics' by Schrodinger.
5. Among the results obtained with 'the particle-dynamical tradition,' are the 'theory of the atomic structure' by Rutherford and Bohr, and the 'matrix mechnics' by Heisenberg.
6. When we re-construct the 'Einstein-Bohr controversy' over the interpretation of the quantum theory from Einstein's side, we find that he has succeeded in the 'criticism on the completeness of the quantum theory,' Einstein's 'statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics' was a result of the fact that he belonged to 'the chemico-thermal tradition.'
Research Products (15results)